What is FR4 in PCB?
FR4 is a standard defined by the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) for a glass-reinforced epoxy resin laminate. FR stands for “flame retardant” and indicates that the material is compliant with the UL94V-0 standard on plastic material inflammability. The 94V-0 code can be found on all FR-4 PCBs.
Why do we use FR4 substrate?
FR4 sheets are electrical insulators with high dielectric strength. They also feature a high strength-to-weight ratio and are lightweight and resistant to moisture. Add this to their relative temperature resistance, and FR4 material can perform well in most environmental conditions.
What is the effect of a substrate on microstrip antenna?
From the above analysis, we can conclude that the use of substrate material with higher dielectric constant in microstrip patch antenna design, results degradation of antenna performance but size of the antenna reduces.2015-04-03
Why dielectric substrate is used in antenna?
Dielectric constant of substrates affects the antenna performance. The substrate which has a low dielectric constant will give better performance than the substrate which has a high dielectric constant. Loss tangent or dissipation factor also plays a part in antenna performance.
Why we use FR4 epoxy as substrate?
Abstract: FR4 epoxy glass substrates are the material of choice for most PCB applications. The material is very low cost and has excellent mechanical properties, making it ideal for a wide range of electronic component applications.
What is FR4 substrate?
FR4 is the most common material grade that comprises fabricated circuit boards. ‘FR’ indicates the material is flame retardant and the ‘4’ indicates woven glass reinforced epoxy resin. Single or double-sided PCB structures consist of an FR4 core and top and bottom copper layers.
What is dielectric constant in antenna?
The Dielectric Constant is a convenient way of discussing the permittivity of materials. Recall that the permittivity of a vacuum (that is, in outer space or where there is no atoms or material in a volume – also known as Free Space) is 8.854*10^-12 [Farads/meter].
Why FR4 is commonly used?
FR4 sheets are widely popular among electrical engineers and designers as a PCB base material. The low cost and versatility of the material, as well as its wealth of beneficial physical properties, account for that popularity. FR4 sheets are electrical insulators with high dielectric strength.
Which metal is most widely used in PCB?
Similarly, Szalatkiewicz (2014) reported that the main metal in the PCBs of computers, mobile phones and PCB mixtures is copper (13.8-24.6% without plastic separation) (Szalatkiewicz, 2014). The metal constituents are comprised of heavy metals.
What is the substrate used for in patch antenna?
A substrate gives mechanical strength to the antenna.
What is meant by substrate in antenna?
A dielectric substrate is a insulator which is a main constituent of the microstrip structure, where a thicker substrate is considered because it has direct proportionality with bandwidth whereas dielectric constant is inversely proportional to bandwidth as lower the relative permittivity better the fringing is
What are the selection criteria of substrate to fabricate a microstrip antenna?
For antenna in WLAN routers the desirable properties are low permittivity, high quality factor, low temperature coefficient of resonance, and low cost.
What is the use of FR4?
FR4 is the most common grade dielectric material that is used in the fabrication of circuit boards. This material is incorporated in single-sided, double-sided, and multi-layered boards. FR4 is the most common grade dielectric material that is used in the fabrication of circuit boards.2021-07-27
What is FR4 used for?
With near zero water absorption, FR-4 is most commonly used as an electrical insulator possessing considerable mechanical strength. The material is known to retain its high mechanical values and electrical insulating qualities in both dry and humid conditions.
What is the best PCB material?
Materials commonly used in PCB substrates range from FR-1 and G-10 to PTFE, alumina and Kapton. Laminates are formulated from CTE, PTFE, CEM, and a variety of other compounds. When high performance is not an essential PCB characteristic, a material like lightweight polyester is probably a good choice.
What material is used for patch antenna?
The conducting materials employed as the patch and ground for the performance analysis of the printed antennas are copper, aluminium, brass and stainless steel having corresponding conductivities of 5.78 × 10 7 S/m, 3.52 × 10 7 S/m, 1.55 × 10 7 S/m and 1.00 × 10 6 S/m, respectively.
What are most PCBs made of?
Typically, PCBs are made from non-substrate materials with layers of copper circuitry. However, different types of PCB differ in their construction. For example, while some printed circuit boards contain a single layer of copper circuitry, more advanced PCBs may contain 50 or more.2020-10-15
What is a typical PCB?
Today, it is more accurate to say there is a range of common or standard PCB thicknesses. These include 0.031in (0.78mm ), 0.062in (1.57mm) and 0.093in (2.36mm). Depending on your choice for PCB fabrication and assembly services, you may be able to have boards made with other thicknesses.
Why dielectrics are used in antenna?
Dielectrics are used for improved electrical and mechanical stability. They are used to reduce the size of the antenna (higher permittivity, lower size) and can help to produce displacement current which produces time varying Magnetic Field (by Ampere’s Law).